FLY ASH RESOURCE CENTER


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The Fly Ash Resource Center provides information on coal combustion byproducts (CCBs): Materials Research, Environmental, Standards/Quality Assurance, Marketplace. For Research see Materials Research section. See Environmental . For Standards/Quality Assurance see Standards section. Quality control, specifications. For uses see Marketplace section. See fly ash bibliography, chemistry, images, newsgroups, organizations of interest, fly ash as a pozzolan, fly ash in roadbase, fly ash in soil stabilization, and fly ash in waste stabilization. (Updated July 2005).

COAL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS (CCBs)Animated gif-a sphere

Fossil fuels are used in modern power plants throughout the world to produce electrical energy. The inorganic residue, that remains after pulverized coal is burned, is known as 'Coal combustion byproducts'. Coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) rapidly accumulate and cause enormous problems of disposal unless a way can be found to utilize these by-products through resource recovery programs. Using coal fly ash conserves energy by reducing the demand for typical pavement materials such as lime, cement and crushed stone, which take energy to produce. Each ton of fly ash used to replace a ton of cement, for example, saves the equivalent of nearly one barrel of imported oil. Also less greenhouse gases are produced that would otherwise contribute to global warming. Every ton of ash reused in cement products equates to nearly a ton of CO2 savings. Coal fly ash can also replace clay, sand, limestone and gravel, and save the energy costs of mining such materials. In the United States, production fiqures for 2002 were 76.5 million tons of coal fly ash, 19.8 million tons of bottom ash, 1.9 million tons of boiler slag, 11.4 million tons of FGD Gypsum, and 17.8 million tons of FGD Material- Scrubber (wet and dry). See American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) for details.

The production figures in Europe in 2001 were (in thousand metric tonnes): 39.95 fly ash, 5.84 botttom ash, 2.24 boiler slag and 1.06 FBC ash.  Please contact the European Association for Use of By-Products of Coal-Fired Power Stations (ECOBA) for more information.

Britain's coal-fired power stations generate around 10 million tonnes of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) waste every year. This presents a massive disposal problem, but it can be reduced by using some of the PFA in a variety of construction applications, including concrete. Nearly a million tons of PFA are used in concrete in Britain each year. It replaces part (typically 25 to 30%) of the concrete's cement content, thus reducing costs.

For information on Canada, see the Association of Canadian Industries Recycling Coal Ash.

Australian coal-fired power stations produced over 13 million tonnes of total ash in 2003. Approximately 10% of this is incorporated into cement and concrete; the rest ends up in unsightly ash dams.

For information on Australia, see the Ash Development Association of Australia..

Fly Ash is the finely-divided CCB collected by electrostatic precipitators from the flue gases. Boiler slag and Bottom ash are the heavier and coarser coal combustion byproducts.



  Fly ash Concrete in Marina City (Chicago)


  Fly Ash concrete in Sears Tower and River City (Chicago)
 

It is the intent of the Fly Ash Resource Center to promote the utilization of fly ash, boiler slag, and bottom ash through the dissemination of knowledge, research, and project activities. It is hoped the reader becomes an active participant and shares his/her knowledge and activities by signing and reading the guestbook. Increased utilization of coal combustion byproducts minimizes disposal costs (costs which are economic and environmental).

Orchid Hotel is a good example of environmental responsibility. The Orchid Hotel in Mumbai, India received an Ecotel Certification for using recycled materials like fly ash.

                 KEYWORDS:  bottom ash (les mâchefers, cenizas de fondo, ceneri pesanti, Kesselsand); boiler slag (Schmelzkammergranulat); coal combustion byproducts (CCBs).

    Fly Ash : fly ash, flyash, flugasche, vliegas, flygaska, flyveaskes, lentotuhka, cendres volantes, cendre volante beton, cenizas volantes, ceneri volanti, , cinzas volantes, pernyék , ιπτάμενη τέφρα, coal fly ash, coal ash, popílek, popiołów ,pyły lotne, popolček (lietavý), летучая зола, precipitadores electrostaticos, pulverised fuel ash (PFA), poederkoolvliegas,

    Pozzolan: pozolana, pozzolana, puzolana, puzolanas, puzolánicos, puzzolane materialen, pouzzolane; pouzivanych materialu,  pozzolanic reaction: puzzolanische reaktion.

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CONFERENCES

FLY ASH BENEFICIATION

FLY ASH BIBLIOGRAPHY

FLY ASH CHEMISTRY: Major oxides and Trace metals

FLY ASH IMAGES

FLY ASH LIBRARY 

FLY ASH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

FLY ASH AS POZZOLAN

FLY ASH QUALITY CONTROL

FLY ASH SUPPLIERS

FLY ASH SYSTEMS

MIDWEST CONCRETE CONSORTIUM-RELATED LINKS(cement associations, library sites, government sites, other organizations, etc.)

NEWSGROUPS: sci.materials, sci.environment.waste,sci.engr.civil,misc.industry.utilities.electric 

ORGANIZATIONS OF INTEREST

RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT ( RCRA)

STABILIZATION OF ROADS

STABILIZATION OF SOILS

STABILIZATION OF WASTES

Materials Research

The shape. fineness, particle-size distribution, density, and composition of fly ash particles influence the properties of end use products. Fly Ash produced at different power plants or at one plant with different coal sources may have different colors. And particle size and shape characteristics of fly ash are dependent upon the source and uniformity of the coal, the degree of pulverization prior to burning, and the type of collection system used. Rapid cooling of the ash from the molten state as it leaves the flame causes fly ash to be predominantly noncrystalline (glassy) with minor amounts of crystalline constituents, such as mullite, quartz, magnetite (or ferrel spinel), and hematite. Other constituents which may be present in high-calcium fly ash include periclase, anhydrite, lime, alkali sulfate, melilite, merwinite, nepheline, sodalite, C3S,and C2A.

Fly Ash particles, carried out of the boiler by the exhaust gases, are extremely variable but have some characteristics of interest. The particles are generally less than 250 micrometres in size, spheroidal, have a high mechanical strength, a range of densities from about 3 to less than 0.6, a melting point above 1000°C, low thermal conductivity and are mostly chemically inert. See Fly Ash as an engineered construction material.
 

Materials Research is conducted at universities and organizations throughout the world. This research leads to new ideas and uses for CCBs.

Materials Research                                             Organizations of Interest
 

Environmental

Standards/Quality Assurance

A quality assurance program is required in order to assure the end user that the CCB is acceptable for its intended application by meeting certain standards. See fly ash quality control tests.

Fly Ash Quality Control  Specifications

Standard  

Fly Ash Marketplace
 

Written by R. Majko. 

E-mail: rmajko@yahoo.com
 

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FLY ASH RESOURCE CENTER

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