1994 Publication Title: The Use of Pulverised Fuel Ash as a Bituminous Filler ,Publication Code: fpp052 ,Host Organisation: University of Leeds ,Publication Date: 11-Apr-94 ,Sector/Technology: Non Metallic Minerals & Products ABSTRACT: This project investigated the feasibility of using pulverised fuel ash (PFA), a by-product of coal-fired power stations, as a replacement for conventional limestone filler in hot-rolled asphalt wearing courses. Incorporation of PFA allows asphalts to be mixed and laid at much lower temperatures due to improved aggregate coating and workability. This gives PFA an energy cost advantage over conventional mixtures, and is especially useful in cold weather. Site trials were carried out in Cleveland, and were substantiated by laboratory tests. Monitoring trials evaluated deflection, texture depth and rut depth. The results confirmed that the performance of the road surface containing PFA compared well with conventional sections.
1983 T.Tons, R.O. Goetz, M. Razi, Flyash as Asphalt Reducer in Bituminous Base Courses, University of Michigan-College of Engineering Project Report (1983)
1982 J.C. Rosner, et al, Fly Ash as a Mineral Filler and Antistripping Agent for Asphalt Concrete, Sixth International Ash Utilization Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 1 (1982)
1978 Arizona State University, Fly Ash in Bituminous Systems, Ash Technology (1978)
BACKFILLS ( STABILIZED) /CLSMs
1994 Ramme, Naik, Kolbeck, Use of Fly Ash Slurry for Underground Facility Construction, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 8, No. 1(1994)
1991 S. Horiuchi & T. Odawara & H. Takiwaki, Coal Fly Ash Slurries for Backfilling, Wascon '91, Waste Materials in Construction, Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Implications of Construction with Waste materials, Maastricht, Netherlands (Nov. 1991)
1990 T.R. Naik, B.W. Ramme, H.J. Kolbeck, Filling Abandoned Underground Facilities with CLSM Fly Ash Slurry, Concrete International, pp.19-25 (July 1990)
1986 J. Emery, T. Johnson, Unshrinkable Fill for Utility Cut Restorations, ACI #SP93-10 (1986)
1985 Metropolitan Toronto Roads and Traffic Department, Utility Cut Restoration-Problems and a New Policy (1985)
1984 J.J. Fuston, W.C. Krell, F.U. Zimmer, Flowable Fly Ash: A New Cement Stabilized Backfill, Civil Engineering-ASCE, pp. 48-51 (March 1984)
1981 Baker, Wood, Mallow, Improved Backfill Stabilization Materials, Southwest Research Institute for Gas Research Institute, NTIS #PB83-23270-2 (1981)
Bittner,James and Gasiorowski, Stephen, Five years of Commercial Fly Ash Beneficiation by Separation Technologies,Inc. Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
Koshinski, Casimir & Friedrich, Albin, Demonstration of a New Commercial Process for Removing Carbon form Fly Ash Generated from Different Coal Sources, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
Vasiliauskas & Shilling & Willauer, Successful Fly Ash Benefiication at Carolina Power and Lights's Roxboro Station, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1994 Fly Ash Replaces Shale in Ontario Cement Manufacture, Waste and Environment Today, News Review Journal, Vol. 7, No. 12, Reprinted from Coal and Synfuels Technology, Vol.15, No. 41(October 1994)
1993 Puri, Georgescu, Fly Ash -A Raw Material for Cement Production, Zement Kalk Gips, English translation: ZKG, Vol. 46, No. 2(1993)
1993 Majling, Roy, The Potential of Fly Ash for Cement Manufacture, American Ceramic Society Bulletin, vol. 72, No. 10 (1993)
Abriak N.-E.1, Fayet T.1, Pellissier C.2, Hjiaj
M.1 et Klein C.2 Propriétés
mécaniques et physiques de cendres volantes1
École des Mines de Douai, 941 rue C. Bourseul, B.P. 838, 59508 Douai,
2 E.D.F., Centre National d'Équipement Thermique, Immeuble Concorde, cedex 24, 92057 Paris La Défense, FranceAbstract:
This study concerns the characterization of five different fly ashes, resulting from coal combustion in thermic power plants.
Granulometry, apparent density, compressibility, internal friction and friction against wall, have been quantified. Those
characteristics can noticeably be modified in accordance with the coal type, the combustion type, and the flue gas
desulfuration process. It appears that intergranular electrostatic forces lead, when the grains are very small, to an important
decrease of apparent density. Résumé: L'étude présentée concerne la caractérisation de cinq cendres volantes différentes, issues de la combustion de charbon en
centrale thermique, du point de vue : de la granulométrie, de la masse volumique apparente et de la compressibilité, et enfin
du frottement interne ou contre paroi. Ces caractéristiques peuvent être notablement différentes suivant le type de charbon,
de combustion, et le procédé de désulfuration des fumées. On constate que les forces intergranulaires électrostatiques
conduisent, lorsque les grains sont particulièrement fins, à une très forte diminution de la densité du matériau en vrac.
Keywords: cendres volantes, granulométrie, masse volumique, compressibilité, frottement
1999 Blondin, Iribarne, and Anthony, Hydration of Combustion Ashes-A chemical and Physical Study, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1999 Affolter, Brownfield, and Cathcart, Chemical Variation of Feed Coal and Coal Combustiuon Products from an Indiana Power Plant Utilizing Low Sulfur Powder River Basin Coal, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1999 Maroto-Valer, Taulbee, Schobert, and Hower, Characterization of Differing Forms of Unburned Carbon Present in Fly Ash, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1987 R.T. Hemmings and E.E. Berry of Ontario Research Foundation, On the Glass in Coal Fly Ashes: Recent Advances, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Volume 113 (1987)
1986 F.P. Glasser, S. Diamond, D.M. Roy, Hydration Reactions in Cement Pastes Incorporating Fly Ash and Other Pozzolanic Materials, Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings, Page 139, Volume 86 (1986)
1983 Pitt, JM; Mings, ML; Schlorholtz, SM (Iowa State University, Ames; Handly (Walter N) Company, Springfield, Missouri, CHARACTERIZATION AND TECHNIQUES FOR RAPID EVALUATION OF IOWA FLY ASHES Transportation Research Record N941 1983 pp 12-17 5 Fig. 6 Tab. 8 Ref. SUBFILE: HRIS AVAILABLE FROM: Transportation Research Board Publications Office 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington D.C. 20418 An evaluation of seven fly ashes produced from Wyoming coal and available to the construction industry in Iowa is presented. X-ray spectrometry and diffraction were used to determine quantitative elemental and crystalline composition of the seven fly ashes, and long-term, multiple samples were taken at three sources to define variability in elemental composition. It was found that existing ASTM fly ash classification is not necessarily consistent with the coal type, that elemental variability within a single source can be equivalent of that of Type I portland cement, and that quantitative crystalline composition provides information useful for rational categorization. Of the seven fly ashes evaluated, three contained significant amounts of cementitious aluminum bearing phases; and all the fly ashes were comprised of about 25 percent crystalline compounds. Knowledge of cement led to development of a heat evolution test which may be useful in predicting cement content, and an evalaution of crystalline calcium and magnesium oxides suggests that soundness of fly ash-portland cement mortar is not influenced by magnesium oxide but is influenced by the crystalline calcium oxide present in the fly ashes evaluated. This paper appeared in Transport Research Record 941, Characterization and Use of Fly Ash and Copper Slag: Soil Stabilization.
1982 R.J. Lauf, Microstructures of Coal Fly Ash Particles, Ceramic Bulletin, Vol. 61, No.4 (1982)
1976 S. S. Ray and F. G. Parker. Characterization of ash from coal-fired power plants Author Ray, S S Publisher Research Triangle Park, N.C. : Environmenal Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory ; Springfield, Va. : for sale by the National Technical Information Service, 1977. Description ix, 130 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. Series Title Interagency energy-environment research and development program report ; EPA-600/7-77-010. Notes Prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority, Power Research Staff for EPA, Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry, under Interagency Agreement No. D5-E-721, Program Element No. EHB 557. Issued Jan. 1976. Bibliography: p. 117-129. Subject(s) Fly ash. Combustion. Electric power-plants.
Performance based classification of fly ash
High Performance Concrete papers
1997 R.C. Joshi and R.P. Lohtia, (both of The University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada ) FLY ASH IN CONCRETE: Production, Properties and Uses Advances in Concrete Technology, Volume 2 Since it was first recognized as a mineral admixture for concrete in the 1930's, fly ash has been the subject of worldwide study as researchers work to maximize its economical and environmental benefits. In recent years, investigations have focused on the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of fly ash and their specific correlation to the performance of concrete. This book collects the latest results from these various studies and offers a complete review of the advantages of fly ash as an admixture in concrete, including strength development and improved chemical resistance and durability. A review of the current international standards on fly ash usage is provided, in addition to an extensive reference list and a complete survey of various other fly ash products, such as bricks, mineral wool and gypsum wall boards, as well as the use of fly ash in waste management. Contents: Types and Properties of Fly Ash * Uses of Fly Ash in Cement and Concrete * Effect of Fly Ash on the Properties of Fresh Concrete * Effect of Fly Ash on the Structural Properties of Hardened Concrete * Effect of Fly Ash on the Durability of Concrete * Applications of Fly Ash in Special Concretes * Admixtures in Fly Ash Concrete * Miscellaneous Opportunities for Fly Ash Use * Fly Ash Usage in Waste Management * Special Problems Including Use Constraints Readership: Civil and structural engineers in research and academia, concrete manufacturers, researchers, testers and suppliers, contractors involved in concrete construction and maintenence, and ready-mix producers. March 1997 * 128pp Cloth * ISBN 90-5699-579-0 * R US$85 / £55 / ECU71 Paperback * ISBN 90-5699-580-4 * A US$40 / £26 / ECU33 Gordon and Breach
1993 P. Schiessl&R.Hardtl, Coal Fly Ash in Concrete, Beton, Vol.43, No.12 (Dec. 1993-in German)
1993 R.C. Joshi & R.P. Lohtia&Sala, High Strength Concrete with High Volumes of Canadian Sub-bituminous Coal fly Ash, Utilization of High Strength Concrete Proceedings, Symposium in Lillehammer, Norway (June 1993)
1993 Goma&Costa&Artigas, Properties of Concretes containing HAC and High Volumes of Fly Ash, Concrete 2000, Economic and Durable Construction through Excellance, Proceedings of the International conference, University of Dundee, Scotland (Sept. 1993)
1992 Phil Owens, From Lednock to the Channel Tunnel. Assesses four Decades of PFA Progress in the UK, Concrete, Vol.26, No.3 (May 1992)
1991 Ellis, WE; Riggs, EH; Butler, WB, COMPARATIVE RESULTS OF UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH, SILICA FUME AND GGBFS IN REDUCING THE CHLORIDE PERMEABILITY OF CONCRETE. IN: DURABILITY OF CONCRETE. SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. AUGUST 4-9, 1991, MONTREAL, CANADA. VOLUME I American Concrete Institute P.O. Box 19150, Redford Station, 22400 SevenMile Road Detroit Michigan 48219 1991 pp 443-458 2 Fig. 2 Tab. 9 Ref. REPORT NO: SP 126-23 SUBFILE: HRIS AVAILABLE FROM: American Concrete Institute P.O. Box 19150, RedfordStation, 22400 Seven Mile Road Detroit Michigan 48219 This research project was undertaken to determine the effect on the chloride permeability of concretes of increasing amounts of fly ash in low water/cementitious material ratio concrete, as compared with comparable high quality concretes containing combinations of portland cement, silica fume and ground granulated blast furnace slag. The test method utilized was the Rapid Determination of the Chloride Permeability of Concrete (AASHTO T-277). Fifteen superplasticized concrete mixtures were evaluated for compressive strength at ages of 28 and 56 days, and for chloride permeability at 56 days. The inclusion of fly ash, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag all significantly reduced the chloride permeability of concrete, as compared with concrete containing portland cement only. Increasing amounts of fly ash generally showed decreased permeability in the tests conducted.
1988 Ozyildirim, C; Halstead, WJ, RESISTANCE TO CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION OF CONCRETES CONTAINING FLY ASH, SILICA FUME, OR SLAG. FINAL REPORT Virginia Transportation Research Council P.O. Box 3817, University Station Charlottesville Virginia 22903; Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation 1221 East Broad Street Richmond Virginia 23219; Federal Highway Administration 400 7th Street, SW Washington D.C. 20590 Feb 1988 40p 5 Fig. 5 Tab. 11 Ref. 2 App. REPORT NO: FHWA/VA-88-R11; VTRC 88-R11 CONTRACT NO: 2383-000-940; Contract SUBFILE: HRIS AVAILABLE FROM: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield Virginia 22161 The effects of two pozzolanic admixtures, fly ash and silica fume, and a ground-granulated blast furnace slag on the chloride ion intrusion of concretes prepared with low water-to-cementitious material ratios (w/c) (0.35 to 0.45) were investigated. Results of the rapid permeability test (AASHTO T 277) showed that the resistance of concrete to the penetration of chloride ions increases significantly as the w/c is decreased for the same proportion of solid ingredients. Usually, concretes with pozzolans or slag exhibited higher resistance to chloride ion penetration than the control concretes containing portland cement as the cementitious material. Results of the 90-day ponding test (similar to AASHTO T 259), which was conducted with 0.40 w/c concretes only, indicated minimal chloride content at depths below 3/4 in (19 mm) for all the test concretes. Strength values for all concretes made with the pozzolans and slag at 90 days were in excess of 5,000 psi (34.5 MPa), which is satisfactory. Research study title: Use of Admixtures to Attain Low Permeability Concretes.
1987 Sturrup, V; Hooton, R; Mukherjee, P; Carmichael, T, EVALUATION AND PREDICTION OF CONCRETE DURABILITY - ONTARIO'S HYDRO'S EXPERIENCE. CONCRETE DURABILITY. KATHERINE AND BRYANT MATHER INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, HELD AT ATLANTA, GEORGIA, USA, 27 APRIL-MAY 1987 American Concrete Institute P.O. Box 19150, Redford Station Detroit Michigan 48219 1987 pp 1121-54 13 Ref. SUBFILE: HRIS; TRRL; IRRD AVAILABLE FROM: American Concrete Institute P.O. Box 19150, Redford Station Detroit Michigan 48219 Durability, or service performance, is one of the most important mproperties of concrete. Unlike strength, however, it is difficult and frequently impossible to evaluate and predict. There are numerous, short-term tests which qualitatively compare relative behaviour, but none reliably predict ultimate service performance. Laboratory tests attempt to simulate specific destructive mechanisms. However, to produce results quickly, conditions frequently are more severe, and therefore more destructive than service conditions. Over magnification or poor reproduction of the exposure condition can produce misleading results. More reliable predictions can be made from long-term service records of concretes containing similar materials and proportions and subjected to similar conditions. Frequently, reliable data are either unavailable or incomplete, leaving the engineer no alternative but accelerated laboratory tests. Results from controlled outdoor exposure tests are far more reliable but require long-term planning. While exposure conditions may not be duplicated precisely, they are more closely approximated. This paper reviews Ontario hydro's experience in predicting the durability of concrete and assessing its service performance. Included are data from 28 years of outdoor exposure studies, with accelerated laboratory tests on companion specimens and constituent materials, on air-and non-air--entrained concretes, concretes with fly ashes of variable quality and different proportions, and concretes containing aggregates of dubious quality. The results are compared with the performance of concrete in actual structures up to 50 years old. (Author/TRRL)
1982 J. Pierce, Use of Fly Ash in Combating Sulfate Attack in Concrete, Proceedings, Sixth International Ash Utilization Symposium, Reno, NV USA, Vol. 2 (1982)
1982 M.A. Mearing, C.F. Raba, R.L.Smith, Utilization of Class C Fly Ash in Concrete, Proceedings, 6th International Ash Util. Symp. Reno, NV USA (March 1982)
1982 CABRERA J G AND CUSENS A R. (Editors). International Symposium on the Use of PFA in Concrete, Vol. 1, pp 355, Vol. 2, University of Leeds, 1982.
1976 E. R. Dunstan, Jr. ; Performance of lignite and subbituminous fly ash in concrete : a progress report Concrete and Structural Branch. Author Dunstan, E. R. Other Title Lignite and subbituminous fly ash in concrete. Publisher Denver, Colo. : U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Engineering and Research Center, Division of General Research ; Springfield, : for sale by the National Technical Information Service, Operations Division, 1976. Description ii, 23,  p. : ill. ; 27 cm. Series Title REC-ERC ; 76-1 Notes Includes bibliographical references. Subject(s) Fly ash. Concrete Additives. Coal, Pulverized. Concrete Testing. Engineering and Research Center (U.S.).
1976 James F. Meyers, Ramon Pichumani, Bernadette S. Kapples ; GAI Consultants, Inc. Fly-ash as a construction material for highways : a manual Author Meyers, James F. Other Title Fly ash, a highway construction material. Publisher Washington : Dept. of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Offices of Research and Development ; Springfield, Va. : for sale by the National Technical Information service, 1976. Description xvii, 177 p. : ill. Series Title Implementation package ; 76-16 Notes Prepared under contract no. DOT-FH-11-8801 for the U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Offices of Research and Development, Washington, D.C. Cover title: Fly ash, a highway construction material. Contract no. DOT-FH-11-8801. Includes bibliographical references. Subject(s) Fly ash Testing. Road materials Testing. Pozzuolanas Testing. Soil stabilization. Pichuamani, Ramon, jt. auth. Kapples, Bernadette S., jt. auth. United States. Federal Highway Administration. Implementation Division. United States. Federal Highway Administration. Office of Research. GAI Consultants, Inc.
1973 Meilenz Richard C, "Specifications and Methods of Using Fly Ash in Portland Cement Concrete", Ash Utilization, United States Department of the Interior, IC 8640, 1973.
1964 Blick Ronald L, Petersen CF and Winter ME, "Proportioning and Controlling High Strength Concrete", Proportioning Concrete Mixes, SP-46, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1964.
1999 Sutton, Micheal, Autoclaved Cellular Concrete, The Future of Fly Ash, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1979 C.J. Cain, Fly Ash in Concrete Pipe, Concrete Pipe News, Volume 31 No. 6 (1979)
1999 Erbe, Keating, and Hodges, Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Associated with the Use of Coal combustion Products for Highway Embankments, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1985 A.M. Digioia and D.M. Golden, High Volume Ash Utilization in Roadways, Embankments, and Backfills, Seventh International Ash Utilization Symposium, Volume 2 (1985)
1985 De Henau, A; Thijs, MBalkema , CONTROL OF THE STATE OF COMPACTION OF A FLY-ASH EMBANKMENT. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ELEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING, SAN FRANCISCO, 12-16 AUGUST 1985 (AA) P.O. Box 1675 3000 BR Rotterdam Netherlands 90 6191 562 7 1985 pp 867-870 4 Fig. 4 Tab. 1 Phot. 7 Ref. French SUBFILE: HRIS; TRRL; IRRD AVAILABLE FROM: Balkema (AA) P.O. Box 1675 3000 BR Rotterdam Netherlands Fly ash belongs to the category of materials which can present a danger of mass liquefaction under certain stress and saturation conditions when compaction of the fill is not sufficient. The critical state of compaction beyond which liquefaction is not likely, can be determined by laboratory triaxial tests which do not allow for the progress made on a construction site. This paper proposes a rapid method, based on direct shear tests, to evaluate the state of compaction reached in situ in relation to the critical state of compaction, while the exact value of the latter is not known. For the covering abstract of the conference see IRRD 287689. (TRRL)
1984 Larry Lockett. Evaluation of a lime-fly ash-cement slurry pressure injection of a roadway embankment Other Title: The Use of fly ash in highway construction, Lowndes County, Alabama. Publisher [Washington, D.C.?] : U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,  Description 25, 7, 4,  p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. Series Title Demonstration project ; no. 59 Notes Cover title: The use of fly ash in highway contruction, Lowndes County, Alabama. "Demonstration Projects Program"--Cover. "Alabama Highway Department, Bureau of Materials and Tests." Distributed to depository libraries in microfiche. "Initial report"--Cover. "June 1984"--Cover. "FHWA-DP-59-3"--Cover.
1999 Wright, Patrick, Clearing the Air: How Environmental Air Initiatives Can Affect CCP Quality and Utility Costs, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1999 Hower, Thomas, and Trimble, Impact of Conversion to Low-NOx Combustion on Fly Ash Quality: Investigation of a Unit Burning high-sulfur Coal, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1999 Hassert, David, Mercury Release form Coal Combustion By-Products to the Environment, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1999 Lopes, Helena, Characterisation of Heavy Metals in Ashes from a FBC Burning Coal and Industrial Residues, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1999 Sheps-Pelleg and Cohen, Evaluation of the Leaching Potential of Trace Elements formCoal Ash to the (Groundwater) Aquifer, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1999 Kim and Kazonich, Mass Release of Trace Metals from Coal Combustion By-Products, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1995 Solc, J., Foster, H.J., and Butler, R.D., 1995, Environmental impact of fly ash disposal at Colorado, Illinois, and Ohio test sites - hydrogeological approach: Presentation, Groundwater Quality: Remediation and Protection GQ '95, Prague, Czech Republic, May 1995.1995 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LEACHING OF FLY ASH Author: Church, DA; Raad, L; Tumeo, M Corporate Author: Transportation Research Board Series: Transportation Research Record 1486 Pages: pp 3-12 Date: 1995 ISBN: 0309061245 ISSN: 03611981 Features: 6 Fig.8 Tab.19 Ref. Abstract: Leaching of Alaskan coal fly ash was investigated to characterize the leachate generated and identify any toxic elements released in large amounts. Pressure was used to increase the rate of leaching in the column apparatus. Effects of compaction, freezing and thawing, curing, and cement stabilization on leaching were also investigated. Results indicate that high levels of barium are released from ash when rapidly leached with distilled water, although the Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test method did not identify this potential hazard. Stabilization of fly ash with portland cement reduces to the maximum concentration of barium leached. Notes: This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1486, Environmental Testing and Evaluation of Stabilized Wastes, Performance of Stabilized Materials, and New Aggregate Tests.
1989 Lehrsch, Gary A. & Baker, Dale E., Fly ash Erodibility, Nov-Dec 1989. Journal Soil & Water Conservation. 44(6): 624-627. Subject: Susceptibility of Fly Ash Disposal Sites to Water Erosion. Abstract: In the N.E. US, fly ash is removed from stack gases and commonly trucked to landfills for disposal. The cover soil and especially the underlying fly ash of these landfills are susceptible to erosion by water. Fly ash erodibility was estimated by collecting sediment eroded by natural rainfall in the field from standard erosion plots (1.8 m wide x 22.1 m long on a 9% slope of exposed fly ash). The universal soil loss equation (USLE) was used with direct measurements on-site to obtain estimates of the erodibility factor, K for fly ash. These estimates were then compared to an estimate obtained using a soil erodibility nomograph. The K factors measured in the field ranged from 0.11-0.13 Mg ha h (ha MJ mm)-1 and averaged 0.122. A K factor of 0.122 was recommended for erosion control. With this K factor and the USLE, the surface topography of vegetated fly ash disposal areas was designed to limit soil loss to a tolerance level of 4.5 Mg (ha y)-1. Using the design K factor, erosion from vegetated demonstration plots, 73 mm long on a 15% slope, was controlled.
1981 Mark A. Hardy , Effects of coal fly-ash disposal on water quality in and around the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana ; prepared in cooperation with the National Park Service. Author Hardy, Mark A. Publisher Indianapolis, Ind. : U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. Description vi, 64 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. Series Title Water-resources investigations ; 81-16 Notes "April 1981." Bibliography: p. 45-49. Subject(s) Water quality Indiana Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Coal ash. Other Entries United States. National Park Service. Geological Survey (U.S.)
1981 A. Zarkower ... [et al.] , Determining effect of pollutants on the immune system Publisher Research Triangle Park, N.C. : U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health Effects Research Laboratory ; Cincinnati, OH : Center for Environmental Research Information [distributor], 1981. Description 3,  p. : 28 cm. Notes Caption title. At head of title: Project summary. "May 1981." "EPA-600/S1-81-020." Subject(s) Immune response. Fly ash Physiological effect. Air Pollution Physiological effect.
1979 William Meyer and Patrick Tucci. Effects of seepage from fly-ash settling ponds and construction dewatering on ground-water levels in the Cowles unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana Author Meyer, William, 1939- Publisher [Reston, Va.] : Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey, 1979. Description vii, 95 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. Series Title Water resources investigations ; 78-138 Notes "Prepared in cooperation with the National Park Service." Bibliography: p. 95. Subject(s) Water, Underground Indiana Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Mathematical models. Water table Indiana Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Water quality Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.
EPRI Publications: EA 5922 Leachate Chemistry at Montour Fly Ash Test Cell ; EPRI EA 4165 Groundwater Data Analyses at Utility Waste Disposal Sites ; EPRI EA 5321 Chemical Characterization of Fossil Fuel Combustion Wastes ; EPRI CS 5355 Evaluation of hte TCLP on utility wastes ; EPRI TR 101999 Physical and Hydraulic Properties of Fly Ash and Other By-Products from Coal Combustion ; EPRI TR 103205 Compliance Monitoring Detection and Quantitation Levels for Utility Aqueous Discharges; EPRI RP 9032-02 Determination of Leachate Characterization at a Power Plant Dry-Ash Landfill ; EPRI RP 2485-08 Detailed Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Analyses of Selected Coal and Oil Combustion Wastes ; EPRI RP 2422-02 Laboratory Testing of Fly Ash Slurry ; EPRI RP 2796-01 Environmental Performance Assessment of Coal Ash Use Sites ;EPRI RP 3176-04 Institutional Constraints to Coal Fly Ash Use in Construction; EPRI AEP Evaluation of Environmental Factors Related to Fly Ash Utilization and Disposal ; EPRI RP 1260-06 Characterization of Utility Wastes using EPA& ASTM Leachate Methods ; EPRI RP 2708-02 Testing of Proposed EPA TCLP Proposed on Advanced SO2 Control Wastes
Kruger, Richard, Hovy, Mark and Wardle, David, The Use of Fly Ash Fillers in Rubber,Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1993 Papayianni I., High-calcium Fly Ash Grouts, Concrete 2000:Economic and Durable Construction through Excellence, Proceedings of the International Conference, University of Dundee, Scotland, Vol.2, E and FN spon (1993)
1985 J. Del Val, R.G. Martin, Pressure Grouting of Concrete Highways and Airports Utilizing FlyAsh/Cement Grouts, Seventh International Ash Utilization Symposium and Expo, National Ash Assoc.(1985)
1985R. M. Majko, Use of Fly Ash-Cement Grout to Rehab a Century-old Railroad Tunnel, Seventh International Ash Utilization Symposium, National Ash Association (1985)
1984 H.W. Bradbury, Grouting with PFA, Ashtech-Second International Conference in London (1984)
1982 Halow JS and Covey JN, "The Use of Fly Ash Grouts for Concrete Pavement Maintenance", Sixth International Ash Utilization Symposium Proceedings, Sponsored by Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia and The National Ash Association, July 1982.
1981 Del Val John, "Pressure Grouting of Concrete Pavements", Paper prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board and published in the Transportation Research Record 800, titled "Bridge and Pavement Maintenance", January 1981.
1973 CEGB, Central Electricity Generating Board, PFA in Grouting-Technical Bulletin, United Kingdom (1973)
1992 B. Dartsch&D.Lutze, Use of Coal Fly Ash in Concrete Precasting Plants, Betonwerk & Fertigteil, Vol.58, No.1 (Jan. 1992)
1988 Dhir, RK; Munday, JGL; Ho, NY, PFA IN STRUCTURAL PRECAST CONCRETE: ENGINEERING PROPERTIES PERGAMON PRESS PLC CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH VOL. 18 NO. 6 Nov 1988 852-62 SUBFILE: HRIS; TRRL; IRRD The effects are investigated of including pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) on the strength development (compressive and tensile) and deformation behaviour (elastic, creep and shrinkage) of concretes subjected to initial accelerated curing and tested at ages ranging from 18 hours to 1 year. It is shown that (for the test conditions and materials used) concretes containing pfa perform as well as, or better than, concretes containing rapid-hardening portland cement (rhpc) alone and it is suggested that suitable blends of pfa and rhpc can be confidently specified for use in precast prestressed concrete.
1986 T.R. Naik, B.W. Ramme, High Early Strength Fly Ash Concrete for Precast/Prestressed Products, PCI Journal, pp.126-128 (1986)
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Virginia Transportation Research Council Publications
1999 Saylak, Donald and Estakhri, Cindy, Stabilization of Road Bases Containing Coal Combustion By-Product Sulfates and Sulfites using High Volume Fly Ash Cement, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1999 Hopkins, Tommy and Beckham, Tony, Long-term Performance of a Highway Subgrade Stabilized with an Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Material, Proceedings of 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY USA, (Oct. 1999)
1996 USE OF HYDRATED FLY ASH AS A FLEXIBLE BASE MATERIAL Author: Senadheera, SP; Jayawickrama, PW; Rana, ASMA Corporate Author: Transportation Research Board Series: Transportation Research Record 1546 Pages: pp 53-61 Date: 1996 ISBN: 0309059518 ISSN: 03611981 Features: 2 Fig. 5 Tab. 12 Phot. 4 Ref. Abstract: Common uses for fly ash, such as soil stabilization and cement replacement, account for less than 20% of the fly ash produced in the United States. Therefore, finding other bulk uses for fly ash is important. One such potential application is hydrated fly ash as a base material. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is working to produce specifications to incorporate hydrated fly ash as a flexible base material. High-calcium Class C fly ash has a self- hydrating capability in the presence of moisture. Class C fly ash produced from coal power plants using lignite and subbituminous coal is mixed with water, dumped in large pits, and left to hydrate for a period of 3 to 6 weeks. The result is a hard, homogeneous mass of hydrated fly ash that can be mined to produce a construction aggregate much like limestone. TxDOT has used this material on several test projects. It has a desirable compressive strength, but in some instances its adhesion to seal coats has been a problem. Laboratory studies indicate that hydration water content has a significant influence on its strength. Microscopic investigations on hydrated Class C fly ash indicate that the hydration products may depend on the curing conditions. Hydrated Class C fly ash has a potential as a flexible base material provided that the curing process is carefully managed. Notes: This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1546, Issues in Geotechnical Engineering Research. Descriptors: FLY ASH // HYDRATED FLY ASH // BASE COURSES // TEST SECTIONS // TEXAS // COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH // LABORATORY STUDIES // WATER CONTENT // MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS // HYDRATION PRODUCTS // CURING // CALCIUM Status: AVAILABLE TRB BOOKSTORE
1995 ASSESSMENT OF SUITABILITY OF SOME INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS FOR USE IN PAVEMENT BASES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM Author: Dawson, AR; Elliot, RC; Rowe, GM; Williams, J Corporate Author: Transportation Research Board Series: Transportation Research Record 1486 Pages: pp 114-123 Date: 1995 ISBN: 0309061245 ISSN: 03611981 Features: 3 Fig.6 Tab.6 Ref. Abstract: The increasing demand for materials and the increasing quantity of waste generated has created opportunities for the use of alternative materials in road construction. Industrial by-products for use in pavement bases are assessed. The objectives of the research were to ( a) review industrial by-products for possible use in bound pavement bases in the U.K., (b) evaluate the structural properties and workability of selected materials identified in this review by laboratory and pilot scale pavement testing, and (c) relate material performance to that of standard materials used in pavement bases. The work used not only conventional roadbase binders, such as cement and bitumen, but also self-cementing materials and mixtures incorporating alternative hydraulic binders, such as blast-furnace slag/lime and pulverized fuel ash/lime. The performance of all these mixtures is described. Notes: This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1486, Environmental Testing and Evaluation of Stabilized Wastes, Performance of Stabilized Materials, and New Aggregate Tests. Descriptors: INDUSTRIAL WASTES // BY-PRODUCTS // BASE COURSES // STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES // WORKABILITY // LABORATORY TESTS // PAVEMENT TESTS // MATERIALS PERFORMANCE // BLAST FURNACE SLAG // LIME // PULVERIZED FUEL ASH Status: AVAILABLE TRB BOOKSTORE
1995 T.R. Naik & Ramme&Tews, Pavement Construction with High-Volume Class C and Class F Fly Ash Concrete, ACI Materials Journal, Vol.92, No. 2 (March 1995)
1994 Dockter, B.D. "High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete in Small Construction Projects," topical report for the period Jan. - Dec. 1993 for University of North Dakota Plant Services; EERC Publication 94-EERC-03-11, April 1994.
1992 Lin and Zhang, Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Fly Ash, and Recycling Technique in Low Volume Road Rehabilitation, Transportation Research Board, TRR No. 1345 Geoenvironmental and Engineering Properties of Rock, Soil and Aggregate, TRB, Washington DC (1992)
1992 J.Kennedy, Cementitious Bases for Roads-Developments using lime, fly ash, slag and cement, Institute of Concrete Technology, Concrete in Highways and Highway Structures, 20th Annual Convention, Beaconsfield, Coventry, UK (1992)
1990 A. Fraay & J.M. Bijen, Cement-Stabilized Base Courses, Cement and Concrete Composities, Vol.12, No.4 (1990)
1989 Potter,Franklin, Haddock, MacLeod, Cook, PFA in Pavement Construction, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 1, Volume 86 (1989)
1981 Investigation of the use of coal refuse-fly ash compositions as highway base course material / prepared for Federal Highway Administration, Offices of Research & Development, Materials Division. Publisher Washington, D.C. : The Administration ; Springfield, Va. : National Technical Information Service [distributor], 1981. Description vii, 57 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. Notes Cover title. "Final report." "June 1981." "Report no. FHWA/RD-80/129." Bibliography: p. 12-13.
1979 Roger C. Wilmoth and Robert B. Scott, Utilization of fly ash and coal mine refuse as a road base material Resource Extraction and Handling Division, Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory. Author Wilmoth, Roger C. Publisher Cincinnati, Ohio : Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, [Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry], Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory ; [Springfield, Va. : for sale by the National Technical Information Service], 1979. Description ix, 49 p. : ill., graphs ; 28 cm. Series Title Interagency energy-environment research and development program report ; EPA-600/7-79-122 Notes Aug. 1979. Includes bibliographical references. Subject(s) Roads Design and construction. Fly ash. Coal mine waste.
ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE
KOKUBU K, CABRERA J G AND UENO A. Compaction properties of roller compacted concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites 18 (1996) 109-117. Elsevier Science. ISBN 0958 9465.
Asian Experience with fly ash and soils
1996 Anil Misra, Bryan R. Becker and Hongjun Jiang, UTILIZATION OF SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL CLASS C FLY ASH IN SOIL STABILIZATION Misra, A., Becker, B.R., Jiang, H. and Usnick, S. (1996), "Utilization of Class C Fly Ash for Soil Improvement," The Third International Symposium on Environmental Geotechnology, San Diego, CA, June 1996 (to appear). Sponsors: Kansas City Power and Light Company, US DOT Mid-America Transportation Center ABSTRACT: Coal burning utilities in the midwest are increasingly using sub-bituminous coal from Wyoming. These utilities typically produce fly ash, which, because of its high calcium oxide content, may be classified as Class C fly ash. These ash are characterized by their self cementing property and, therefore, they can be used for soil improvement as cement surrogates. This report focusses upon the design, construction and environmental issues pertaining to utilization of Class C fly ash for soil stabilization. The report also gives a description of fly ash physical and chemical properties, with special consideration to high calcium Class C fly ash.The compaction and strength development behavior of clay soils stabilized with fly ash are investigated. Laboratory evaluations required to obtain effecient fly ash addition rates and compaction procedure are discussed. Examples of laboratory evaluations are presented using eight clay soils. Four of these are natural clays obtained from the vicinity Kansas City. The other four clays were prepared in the laboratory by blending a small proportion of bentonite with kaolinite. These laboratory clays have properties that are easily duplicated, and thus provide standard clays for evaluating efficacy of a particular ash. It is observed that compaction delay is an imporatnt factor controlling soil stabilization. It is also observed that the stabilization characteristics depend significantly upon soil plasticity. Data from the literature as well as laboratory tests performed in this work are presented to affirm these observations. It is also expected that long term performance of Class C fly ash will depend upon the curing method and shrinkage crack development. Ongoing research as part of this project will investigate this issue as little data exists in the literature on the long term behavior. Construction guidelines best suited for Class C fly ash soil stabilization are also oulined. Environmental issues related to utilization of Class C fly ash for soil stabilization are examined. The related federal and state regulations are presented. The leaching behavior and potential laboratory leaching tests for Class C fly ash are discussed. It is noted that, Class C fly ash, generally, leaches only very small quantities of contaminants of concern. Nevertheless, leaching behavior of each ash must be examined on a case-by-case basis in relation to the background water quality. Standards must be established for these leaching tests with respect to the leaching fluids that best represent the fluids in nature, such as, simulated goundwater or rainwater leachates. These issues are discussed in relation to the federal and state regulations.
1995 Dallas Little, Handbook for Stabilization of Pavement Subgrades and Base Courses with Lime ,(Texas A&M University, 1995). This (excellent) book is sponsered by National Lime Association and costs about $30.
1995 RESILIENT PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF MODIFIED FLY ASH-STABILIZED FINE-GRAINED SOILS Author: Chang, DT-T Corporate Author: Transportation Research Board Series: Transportation Research Record 1486 Pages: pp 88-96 Date: 1995 ISBN: 0309061245 ISSN: 03611981 Features: 6 Fig.7 Tab.10 Ref. Abstract: A comprehensive study on the application of Class F fly ash for stabilizing subgrade soils in Taiwan is presented. Lime (or cement) was used with fly ash to enhance its self-cementing behavior in the study. Laboratory testing included using the plasticity index method to determine the optimum percentages of additive and fly ash. Through a resilient modulus (M sub r) test program, these percentages were confirmed. A section of test road with treated subgrade constructed on the West Coast Highway has been open to traffic for 40 months to date. A field investigation of this section was part of this study. Results from field California bearing ratio tests indicate that treatment of the subgrade soil had improved its properties by a factor of 10 to 15. Specimens obtained from the field were also evaluated through an M sub r test program, and the results were compatible with those for laboratory-made samples. Finally, a microstructure study is presented showing significant cementitious materials in laboratory and field specimens. Confidence about the future application of Class F fly ash for stabilizing subgrade soils in Taiwan and for handling this problematic waste material is provided. Notes: This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1486, Environmental Testing and Evaluation of Stabilized Wastes, Performance of Stabilized Materials, and New Aggregate Tests. Descriptors: SUBGRADES // FLY ASH // STABILIZATION // TAIWAN // LIME // LABORATORY TESTS // PLASTICITY INDEX // MODULUS OF RESILIENCE // TEST SECTIONS // FIELD INVESTIGATIONS // CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO // MICROSTRUCTURES Status: AVAILABLE TRB BOOKSTORE 1994 McCarty, G.W., R. Siddaramappa. R.J. Wright, E.E. Codling, and G. Gao. 1994. Evaluation of coal combustion byproducts as soil liming materials: their influence on soil pH and enzyme activites. Biol. Fertil. Soils 17:167-172.
1990 Huasmann, MR , Engineering principles of ground modification, McGraw-Hill Publ,(1990)
1985 G. Ferguson, Fly Ash Stabilization of Soils, Seventh International Ash Utilization Symposium Volume2 (1985)
1981 Jack Howley and Chris Wohlers, Upgrading unpaved roads : road base stabilization using lime and fly ash ; UPSIG, Upper Plains States Innovation Group. Author Howley, Jack. Publisher [Washington, D.C.?] : U.S. Dept. of Transportion, 1981. Description 46 p. : ill., 1 map ; 28 cm. Series Title Technology sharing reprint series Notes "September 1981"--Cover. "DOT-I-81-29"--p.  of cover. Includes bibliographical references.
1974 CEGB, PFA in Stabilization-Technical Bulletin, Central Electricity Generating Board, United Kingdom(1974)
Stabilization and Pavement Recycling (includes chapter on Fly Ash Stabilization by Laverne Weber), American Road and Transportation Builders Association , Washington, D.C. USA
1995 Eylands, K.E. "Solidification and Stabilization of Wastes Using Coal Fly Ash: Current Status and Direction," topical report for American Coal Ash Association, ACAA Project Code A-2-S.92; EERC Publication 95-EERC-03-13, March 1995.
1995 J. Scott Canonico , Solidification/stabilization of high nitrate and biodenitrified heavy metal sludges with a Portland cement/flyash system. Author Canonico, J. Scott. Call Number T 4718 Publisher 1995. Paging xiii, 104 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm. Notes Typescript (photocopy) Thesis advisor: Nevis E. Cook, Div. of Environmental Science and Engineering. Other Authors Cook, Nevis E. Colorado School of Mines. Div. of Environmental Science and Engineering. Colorado School of Mines. Div. of Environmental Science and Engineering. Related Terms Canonico, J. Scott. Related Terms Hazardous wastes Solidification. Hazardous wastes Stabilization. Related Terms T 4718
1992 Soundararajan R., The Application of Cement, Fly Ash, and Kiln dust for the Stabilization/Solification of Inorganic Hazardous Wastes, Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1992 IEEE Cement Industry Technical Conference XXXIV, Dallas, Texas(1992)
1991 C.L. Kilgour & A.F. Guloy, Encapsulation of Toxic Waste Materials by Fly Ash Agglomeration, Particulate Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No.3-4 (July-Dec. 1991), pp. 167-179
1989 R.L. Smith, Procedure for Evaluating Coal Fly Ash for Use in Waste Stabilization/Solidification, Presented at the Conference on Use of Coal Fly Ash in Waste Stabilization/Solidification Procedures, Covington, KY (Sept. 1989)
1982 W.C. Webster and D.J. Lorenzen, Use of Self-Hardening Fly Ash in Fixation/Solidification of Inorganic Wastes, Sixth International Ash Utilization Symposium, Volume 1 (1982)
Writen by Richard M. Majko.Fly Ash Resource Center <